The relative positions of diagnostic cultural remains excavated at some Chesapeake sites constrain the time period of intense wind activity sometime between 12,700 and 11,500 years ago.

At the end of the Pleistocene, the region was impacted by the last gasp of the ice age. During a prolonged 1000-year cold episode that began ~12,700 years ago, wind transported vast quantities of sediment (silt and sand) over the region’s denuded landscape. As a result, much of the region’s ~13,000 year-old Clovis-age archaeological remains were buried beneath loess. Several sites have been investigated that have produced diagnostic Clovis points beneath eolian sediments.